Composition of Lok Sabha
Explore the composition of India’s Lok Sabha, the lower house of the country’s parliament. Learn about the total number of seats, the election process, and the representation of different states and union territories
What is Lok Sabha?
India adopted a bicameral legislature which is taken from the 1919 Act. Article 79 constitution of Parliament. There shall be a parliament for the union which shall consist of the president and two houses to be known respectively as the council of states and the House of People. Lok sabha is also known as Lower House, First House, Temporary House, and Popular House, president is an integral part of the parliament without being a member of any House. The Parliament of India is also known as the Heart of the Country. Not more than 530 representatives of the states, not more than 20 representatives of union territories, and 2 members of Anglo – the Indian community which was nominated by the President ( now by the 104th constitutional amendment anglo Indian community is dismissed). At present Lok sabha consist of 543 members which are directly elected from the states and union territories. Lok sabha representatives are directly elected by the people of the state on the basis of adult suffrage. Every citizen who is not less than 18 years of age and is not otherwise disqualified is entitled to vote in such an election. There are no reservations for any majority community other than the scheduled castes and the scheduled tribes.
(Ref: Arts. 330, 341, 342)
Composition of Lok Sabha
•Lok sabha was constituted on 6th may, 1952.
•Number of members can not exceed 552.
•At present, it has 545 members. Article :81(1)
The house of people shall not consist of not more than 530 members chosen by direct election from territorial constituencies in the states, and not more than 20 members to represent the union territories.
The original constitution had 500 seats in the Lok Sabha. But due to the Reconstitution Act, of 1987, the maximum number of members can be 552.
Formation of Seats in Lok Sabha:-
- General election area – 423
- Reserved for scheduled castes -79
- Reserved for schedule Tribe-41
Lok Sabha Tenure:-
- 5 years (members and the House both)
- It can be extended up to 1 year in case of Emergency. It can be extended to a maximum of 8 times.
- In the 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act 1976, the tenure of the Lok sabha was made 6 years but in the 44th constitutional Amendment, 1978 it was again made 5 years.
He/She has to be a citizen of India not less than twenty-five years of age and possess such other qualifications as may be prescribed by any law made by parliament.
Resignation – speaker tenders their resignation to the Deputy Speaker and the Deputy speaker tenders their resignation to the speaker and members give their resignation to the speaker.
Vacation of seats:-
If he has obtained membership in both houses, then he needs to vacate one.
If elected both to the parliament and the state legislature, he needs to resign from the state legislature.
If a member of parliament remains absent from all the meetings of the House for a period of 60 days without the permission of the House, then he has to vacate his seat.
A member can also be disqualified on the grounds of defection if he occupies membership of another party.
Lok Sabha Speaker:-
- Details of the Lok sabha speaker are mentioned in Art. 93.
- The speaker of Lok sabha is elected by Lok sabha from among its members in accordance with the majority of votes.
- The salary of a Lok sabha speaker is equivalent to the vice president of India.
Lok Sabha Elections:-
President nominates a senior member of the house as a pro-tem speaker who presides over the very first meeting of the House. His main function is to administer oaths to the members of the house.
President administers oath to the pro -tem speaker.
He presides over the election of new speakers.
The office of the pro-tem speaker sinks as soon as the new speaker is elected.
A convention has developed that candidate from the ruling party is elected as the speaker 0f the Lok sabha.
Speakers subscribe oath as a member of parliament, not as a speaker of Lok sabha.
- He resigns addressing to deputy speaker.
- If he ceases to be a member of the house.
- He can be removed by the resolution of the Lok Sabha passed by a majority of all the members of the house.
Name of speaker Tenure
1. Ganesh vasudev mavalankar 1952-1956
2. M. Ananthasayanam Ayyangar 1956-1957
3. M. Ananthasayanam Ayyangar 1957-1962
4. Hukum singh 1962-1967
5. Neelam Sanjiva Reddy 1967-1969
6. Gurdial singh dhillon 1969-1971
7. Gurdial singh dhillon 1971- 1975
8. Bali Ram Bhagat 1976-1977
9. Neelam Sanjiva Reddy 26 March 1977- 13 June 1977
10. K. S. Hegde 1977-1980
11. Bal Ram Jakhar 1980-1985
12. Bal Ram Jakhar 1985-1989
13. Ravi Ray 1989-1991
14. Shivraj V. Patil 1991-1996
15. P.A. sangma 1996-1998
16. G. M. C. Balayogi 1998-1999
17. G. M. C. Balayogi 22 oct 1999- 2002
18. Manohar Joshi 2002-2004
19. Somnath Chatterjee 2004-2009
20. Smt. Meira kumar 2009- 2014
21. Smt. Sumitra mahajan 2014 -2019
22. Om birla 2019- present
Articles related to Lok Sabha:-
Art 81- Lok sabha
Art. 326- eligibility for the member of Lok sabha.
Art. 108- joint sitting
Art. 330, 341, 342- réservation for minority communities.
Art 96- casting vote by the speaker
Art 93- The speaker and Deputy speaker of the house of people
Powers and Duties of the Speaker:-
- He decides whether a bill is a money bill or not.
- He resolves cases related to defection.
- He exercises a casting vote in case of inequality of votes.
Special Powers of Lok Sabha:-
- A money bill can only be introduced in Lok sabha.
- A vote of no- confidence can be passed only in Lok sabha.
- The Council of ministers is collectively responsible for Lok sabha.
Sessions of Lok sabha
First Session – 13 May 1952-4 April 1957
The Second Session – 10 May 1957-31 March 1962
Third Session – 16 April 1962-3 March 1967
Fourth Session – 16 March 1967- 27 Dec 1970
Fifth Session – 19 March 1971- 18 Jan 1977
Sixth Session- 25 March 1977- 22 August 1979
Seventh Session – 21 Jan 1980 – 31 Dec 1984
Eighth Session – 15 Jan 1985 -27 Nov 1989
Ninth Session – 18 Dec 1989 – 13 March 1991
Tenth Session – 9 July 1991 – 15 May 1996.
Powers of Parliament:-
Legislative powers – the ordinary bill can be introduced in either house of the parliament.
In case of deadlock, the president can call a joint session under Art 108.
Executive powers:- council of ministers is collectively responsible for Lok sabha and a no-confidence motion can be passed against them only in Lok sabha.
Rajaya Sabha Can Only Ask Questions
Sessions of Parliament:-
Monsoon session – July to September
Winter session – November to December
Few important facts:-
- The first speaker of Lok sabha was G V Mavlanker.
- The first women speaker of Lok sabha was Meera Kumar.
- G V Mavlanker and GS Balayogi died during their term as speakers in Lok sabha.
- Resigned from the position of speaker- Sanjeev Reddy, Guru Dayal Singh Dhillon.
- The first film actor and actress who was nominated in the rajya sabha was- Prithvi Raj Kapoor and Nargis respectively.
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